**Lester Zick** (*lesterzick@earthlink.net*)

*Tue, 04 May 1999 11:34:28 -0400*

**Messages sorted by:**[ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ]**Next message:**Stephen P. King: "[time 276] [Fwd: Fisher information]"**Previous message:**Stephen P. King: "[time 274] Re: [time 273] Re: [time 269] Re: [Time 267] and [Time 83] and [Questionsabout Time and fuzzy hypersets]"

Thanks to everyone who replied to earlier posts.

There seems to be a degree of confusion regarding the nature of Planck's

quantum and the nature of random events, particularly as related to

quantum phenomena.

The only experimentally defined quantum in physical terms is Planck's

quantum of angular momentum. Even my otherwise excellent Random House

Dictionary of the English Language exhibits confusion on this point.

There is no absolute quantum of energy. Planck's quantum is simply the

frequency gradient on which electromagnetic energy is transferred. But

this does not suggest that the transferred energy is somehow quantized.

Planck originally devised the so-called quantum to correlate the

distribution of frequencies in blackbody radiation as a function

radiation frequencies. However, this says nothing about the nature of

radiant frequencies or their units or multiples. There is nothing to

suggest that such frequencies only occur in discrete multiples. Photonic

energy transfer in atoms occurs in discrete multiples of Planck's

constant per second, but the mechanical basis for this is the quantum of

angular momentum and not a quantum of energy.

Atomic dipoles have discrete multiples of 0, 1, 2 ... of Planck's

constant per second not because energy is quantized spatially but

because angular momentum in particles and atomic dipoles is quantized

spatially. The plenum is a continuum in this regard that causes the time

gradient of energy absorption but not the amount of energy absorbed. And

if an atomic dipole energy of

1/2 h per second were possible, so too would the transfer of that

energy.

It is interesting to speculate whether unstable orbits of such

fractional energy states are possible in mechanical terms. But even if

not, the point remains that it is angular momentum that is spatially

constrained in residual terms and not the transfer of energy, which is

simply and accidental consequence of the quantized nature of angular

momentum in temporal terms.

For those who are interested, a more complete treatment of particle

structure and the origin of quantum mechanical phenomena are available

at http://home.earthlink.net/~lesterzick under the section Analytical

Mechanics. Also included are the origin of Planck's constant in

mechanical terms as well as the mechanical liason among Einstein's

energy-mass equivalence, Planck's constant, and Heisenberg's uncertainty

constant.

Regards - Lester

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