**Matti Pitkanen** (*matpitka@pcu.helsinki.fi*)

*Mon, 13 Sep 1999 12:48:34 +0300 (EET DST)*

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The posting below is not directly related to quantum consciousness.

Since crucial effect supporting the conceptual framework behind

TGD is in question and since the possibility of spacetime

sheets carrying negative classical energies is also

important from the point of view of TGD inspired

theory of consciousness, the posting perhaps deserves to be published also

in qmind.

***************************************************

TGD, Faraday and De Palma

I want to thank Berkant for URL addresses related to DePalma

generator. I must confess that I had hard time in winning some

strong prejudices. But seing Wheeler's name in this context

made me to think it more carefully.

[I do not worship names: Wheeler was the first person to encourage

me when TGD was very young and I have learned to deeply

respect his far-sightedness and intellectual honesty.]

The first TGD inspired ideas about the DePalma generator are based

on manysheeted spacetime concept (for TGD see [TGD], [padTGD] and

[cbook] at my homepage).

a) Spacetime sheets can have *two possible time orientations*.

Positive time orientation is defined as the time orientation of the

future lightcone. Recall that spacetime is surface in 8-dimensional

space M^4_+xCP_2. A purely TGD:eish feature of TGD is that the *sign

of the classical energy* depends on the time orientation of the

spacetime sheet.

c) For long time it has been unclear whether negative energies are

realized physically or not in TGD. The construction of the model of

cognition in TGD inspired theory of consciousness suggests that

they are. In particular, TGD allows closed spacetime surfaces with

finite time duration and induced metric having Euclidian

signature. These can be thought of as constructed by gluing two

spacetime sheets of finite duration together along their boundaries.

These surfaces are necessarily vacuum extremals and the energies

associated with the two spacetime sheets necessarily cancel each

other. These surfaces are geometric counterparts of vacuum bubbles of

quantum field theory.

d) DePalma generator [DePalma] suggests that negative energies are indeed

realized in TGD framework. The following arguments provide the

first scenario for the first principle explanations for the effect

observed first by Faraday and for the energy production detected by

De Palma. Thus, rather amazinly, already Faraday's experiment, the

result of which did not fit to Maxwell's theory easily,

provides support for TGD based concept of spacetime and

induce gauge field concept! If TGD explanation

of the phenomenon is correct, one can only wonder the mystic

intuition of Faraday which guided him to do the crucial

experiment more than one century before it was needed!

The arguments probably contain errors and misunderstandings

and I am grateful for critical comments.

1. Stability of the rotating condensed matter requires radial

electric field

a) Assume that rotating Faraday disk generates vacuum

charge density the sign of which depends on the direction of rotation.

The reason for the generation of the electric field could be the

stability of the condensed matter: rotating

nuclei suffer magnetic force evxB and the Coulombic force created by

the radial electric field cancels this force.

b) Charge density can be calculated as divergence of the radial

electric field compensating magnetic Lorentz force. The required

electric field has the magnitude

E= omega*B*r,

where r is radial cylindrical coordinate. The corresponding

charge density is given by

n_V= omega*B/e.

[I am using the units hbar=c=1].

c) The required charge density rho_V cannot be due to a re-arrangement

of the density of conduction electrons, since in this

case there would be huge parity breaking differentiating between

two rotation directions. Thus some kind of vacuum polarization effect

must be in question. In standard physics vacuum polarization effects

are purely local and its is difficult to see how one could generate

macroscopic polarization effects. In TGD however point like

particles are replaced by 3-surfaces and vacuum polarization

could thus generate new spacetime sheet.

2. Charge conservation requires that new spacetime sheet is created

a) Vacuum polarization by generating new spacetime sheet with

negative time orientation

The only manner to achieve the required charge density in TGD framework

is via creation of a new spacetime sheet. Charge conservation

requires that the two spacetime sheets carry opposite charge

densities. Since the distance of the spacetime sheets is of order

CP_2 length about 10^4 Planck lengths, the generation of the new

spacetime sheet with opposite charge density can be regarded as a local

vacuum polarization mechanism.

Energetic considerations suggest strongly that new spacetime sheet

has negative time orientation since only in this case the creation of

the new spacetime sheet does not cost energy. It however

increases the energy of the material spacetime sheet

and this gives clue to the understanding of what is involved

with explanation of DePalma generator.

b) What is the anatomy of vacuum charge?

b1) The field equations associated with absolute minimization of

Kaehler action allow vacuum charge densities unlike vacuum Maxwell

equations: the reason is that primary dynamical variables are not

the Maxwell gauge potentials defined by the induced Kaehler form

but imbedding space (H=M^4_+xCP_2) coordinates in terms of

which the induced Kaehler form defining classical Maxwell field,

is expressible. Electromagnetic field is superposition

of Kaehler field and certain component of CP_2 spinor curvature.

b2) Charge density could be also understood as resulting

from the wormhole throats feeding electric flux between two

spacetime sheets: the two throats have opposite gauge

fluxes serving as classical charges by Gauss's Law.

b3) The splitting of the wormhole contacts is possible and can give rise

to fermions carrying there electroweak quantum numbers on

the resulting boundaries of the holes of split wormhole contact.

This is actually suggested by the basic rules of the game: wormhole

contacts are assumed to reside on boundaries of the spacetime sheets

and can give rise to surface charge densities only.

For instance, electron-positron pairs could be created.

It seems most natural to assume that resulting fermion pairs

are ordinary fermions and electron-positron pairs are the simplest

possibility.

3. Does vacuum polarization correspond to electron-positron pairs at

wo different spacetime sheets?

a) The generation of elementary particles, say electrons, with opposite

energies at two spacetime sheets means that the rest

energy of the material spacetime sheet increases.

a1) Electrostatic energy density is given by

rho_E= E^2/2,

E= omega*r*B.

a2) Also rest mass density is generated and Gauss law implies

that there is density of

n_e= omega*B/e = E/e*r

electrons per volume.

b) If the electrons are at rest, one has rest energy density

rho_e= n_e*m_e= omega*B*me/e = E*me/r*e,

and the ratio R of the electrostatic and rest energy densities is

R==rho_E/rho_e = eV/2*me,

where V is the potential difference between the rim

and axis of the disk.

Order of magnitude is determined by the ratio of the energy

gained by the ratio of the potential difference generated

to electron mass. For V about 1 V this gives something like

R=10^(-6) since electron has mass of .5 MeV.

I do not know whether the generated density of electron mass

could be used as an experimental signature of the effect.

Certainly the number density of electrons is very small for typical

values of omega and B: omega= about 10^3/s and B = about Tesla

gives something like 10^10 electrons per cubic meter.

4. Breaking of parity symmetry

The direction of rotation determines whether electrons

or positrons are generated on the spacetime sheet of the

Faraday disk. This might imply observable effects and annihilation

of the positrons producing monochromatic gamma pairs

might serve as signature of effect. The rate of this

process could be however very low if positrons have suffered

topological condensation on non-atomic spacetime sheet, where

the density of electrons is small.

5. N-machine of De Palma

Consider now the possible working principle behind the machine of DePalma.

a) When one extracts electric energy from the

system consisting of a rotating magnet with conductor

disk attached to it, the electric field tends to dissipate. The

possibility to generate new vacuum charge however compensates this

energy and the ratio of output power to input power can quite well be

larger than one.

b) One can indeed play with the idea that DePalma generator or its

generalization could open the road to the stars! One should try

to find the most general mechanisms implying unstability

of system against the generation of spacetime sheets carrying negative

energies. By the way, the generation of matter antimatter

asymmetry might be based on this mechanism, too. Antimatter

would be at spacetime sheets with negative time orientation and

on spacetime sheets of positive time orientation matter and antimatter

would annihilate.

[This question is also interesting from the point of view of TGD inspired

theory of consciousness since the pairs of positive-negative energy

fermion pairs (cognitive fermion pairs) provide a representation of

Boolean mind: fermion number=1<-->TRUE, fermion =0<-->FALSE), see

[cbook].]

c) If this picture is correct, the basic challenge of the propellantless

propulsion research would be to find systems, which

are unstable against generation of negative energy

spacetime sheets. In case of DePalma generator

stability of condensed matter against Lorentz force,

forces this instability.

d) The model for propulsion depends on what happens to the energy

residing at the negative energy spacetime sheet.

d1) If it is carried by the rocket one must treat the vehicle as a

composite of the both spacetime sheets. In this case the total rest

energy of the vehicle is gradually reduced and the

rate for the transformation of rest energy to power is the

rate at which power is consumed in the rest system of the

vehicle:

dM/dtau= P.

Here P is the total power disappering from the vehicle

and contains the power used to accelerate it.

d2) If the energy density associated with the negative

energy spacetime sheet can be forgotten after its creation, one

can assume that the rest mass of the rocket stays constant.

dgamma/dtau = P/M,

gamma=1/sqrt(1-v^2).

One could of course ask what happens to the negative energy spacetime

sheets after their creation. One possibility is that they

live some time and disappear: this would mean that negative energy

goes back to some material system. Thus the mechanism of energy

extraction would be nonlocal and could draw energy from distant

energy sources. Basically the TGD;eish

version of vacuum pair generation which particles replaced

with 3-surfaces is in question. Also macroscopic quantum

effect would be in question.

References:

[TGD] "Topological Geometrodynamics",

http://www.physics.helsinki.fi/~matpitka/tgd.html.

[pdTGD] "Topological Geometrodynamics and p-Adic numbers",

http://www.physics.helsinki.fi/~matpitka/tgd.html.

[cbook] "TGD inspired theory of consciousness with applications

to biosystems",

http://www.physics.helsinki.fi/~matpitka/tgd.html

[cbook] is under heavy updating now. I hope that updated

chapters are available after few weeks.

[DePalma]

http://www.depalma.pair.com

With Best Regards,

Matti Pitkanen

**Next message:**Matti Pitkanen: "[time 755] Re: [time 752] Re: [time 737] John Baez and the real problems about time"**Previous message:**WDEshleman@aol.com: "[time 753] Re: [time 751] My Paradigm Shift"

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