Matti Pitkanen (email@example.com)
Mon, 13 Sep 1999 12:48:34 +0300 (EET DST)
The posting below is not directly related to quantum consciousness.
Since crucial effect supporting the conceptual framework behind
TGD is in question and since the possibility of spacetime
sheets carrying negative classical energies is also
important from the point of view of TGD inspired
theory of consciousness, the posting perhaps deserves to be published also
TGD, Faraday and De Palma
I want to thank Berkant for URL addresses related to DePalma
generator. I must confess that I had hard time in winning some
strong prejudices. But seing Wheeler's name in this context
made me to think it more carefully.
[I do not worship names: Wheeler was the first person to encourage
me when TGD was very young and I have learned to deeply
respect his far-sightedness and intellectual honesty.]
The first TGD inspired ideas about the DePalma generator are based
on manysheeted spacetime concept (for TGD see [TGD], [padTGD] and
[cbook] at my homepage).
a) Spacetime sheets can have *two possible time orientations*.
Positive time orientation is defined as the time orientation of the
future lightcone. Recall that spacetime is surface in 8-dimensional
space M^4_+xCP_2. A purely TGD:eish feature of TGD is that the *sign
of the classical energy* depends on the time orientation of the
c) For long time it has been unclear whether negative energies are
realized physically or not in TGD. The construction of the model of
cognition in TGD inspired theory of consciousness suggests that
they are. In particular, TGD allows closed spacetime surfaces with
finite time duration and induced metric having Euclidian
signature. These can be thought of as constructed by gluing two
spacetime sheets of finite duration together along their boundaries.
These surfaces are necessarily vacuum extremals and the energies
associated with the two spacetime sheets necessarily cancel each
other. These surfaces are geometric counterparts of vacuum bubbles of
quantum field theory.
d) DePalma generator [DePalma] suggests that negative energies are indeed
realized in TGD framework. The following arguments provide the
first scenario for the first principle explanations for the effect
observed first by Faraday and for the energy production detected by
De Palma. Thus, rather amazinly, already Faraday's experiment, the
result of which did not fit to Maxwell's theory easily,
provides support for TGD based concept of spacetime and
induce gauge field concept! If TGD explanation
of the phenomenon is correct, one can only wonder the mystic
intuition of Faraday which guided him to do the crucial
experiment more than one century before it was needed!
The arguments probably contain errors and misunderstandings
and I am grateful for critical comments.
1. Stability of the rotating condensed matter requires radial
a) Assume that rotating Faraday disk generates vacuum
charge density the sign of which depends on the direction of rotation.
The reason for the generation of the electric field could be the
stability of the condensed matter: rotating
nuclei suffer magnetic force evxB and the Coulombic force created by
the radial electric field cancels this force.
b) Charge density can be calculated as divergence of the radial
electric field compensating magnetic Lorentz force. The required
electric field has the magnitude
where r is radial cylindrical coordinate. The corresponding
charge density is given by
[I am using the units hbar=c=1].
c) The required charge density rho_V cannot be due to a re-arrangement
of the density of conduction electrons, since in this
case there would be huge parity breaking differentiating between
two rotation directions. Thus some kind of vacuum polarization effect
must be in question. In standard physics vacuum polarization effects
are purely local and its is difficult to see how one could generate
macroscopic polarization effects. In TGD however point like
particles are replaced by 3-surfaces and vacuum polarization
could thus generate new spacetime sheet.
2. Charge conservation requires that new spacetime sheet is created
a) Vacuum polarization by generating new spacetime sheet with
negative time orientation
The only manner to achieve the required charge density in TGD framework
is via creation of a new spacetime sheet. Charge conservation
requires that the two spacetime sheets carry opposite charge
densities. Since the distance of the spacetime sheets is of order
CP_2 length about 10^4 Planck lengths, the generation of the new
spacetime sheet with opposite charge density can be regarded as a local
vacuum polarization mechanism.
Energetic considerations suggest strongly that new spacetime sheet
has negative time orientation since only in this case the creation of
the new spacetime sheet does not cost energy. It however
increases the energy of the material spacetime sheet
and this gives clue to the understanding of what is involved
with explanation of DePalma generator.
b) What is the anatomy of vacuum charge?
b1) The field equations associated with absolute minimization of
Kaehler action allow vacuum charge densities unlike vacuum Maxwell
equations: the reason is that primary dynamical variables are not
the Maxwell gauge potentials defined by the induced Kaehler form
but imbedding space (H=M^4_+xCP_2) coordinates in terms of
which the induced Kaehler form defining classical Maxwell field,
is expressible. Electromagnetic field is superposition
of Kaehler field and certain component of CP_2 spinor curvature.
b2) Charge density could be also understood as resulting
from the wormhole throats feeding electric flux between two
spacetime sheets: the two throats have opposite gauge
fluxes serving as classical charges by Gauss's Law.
b3) The splitting of the wormhole contacts is possible and can give rise
to fermions carrying there electroweak quantum numbers on
the resulting boundaries of the holes of split wormhole contact.
This is actually suggested by the basic rules of the game: wormhole
contacts are assumed to reside on boundaries of the spacetime sheets
and can give rise to surface charge densities only.
For instance, electron-positron pairs could be created.
It seems most natural to assume that resulting fermion pairs
are ordinary fermions and electron-positron pairs are the simplest
3. Does vacuum polarization correspond to electron-positron pairs at
wo different spacetime sheets?
a) The generation of elementary particles, say electrons, with opposite
energies at two spacetime sheets means that the rest
energy of the material spacetime sheet increases.
a1) Electrostatic energy density is given by
a2) Also rest mass density is generated and Gauss law implies
that there is density of
n_e= omega*B/e = E/e*r
electrons per volume.
b) If the electrons are at rest, one has rest energy density
rho_e= n_e*m_e= omega*B*me/e = E*me/r*e,
and the ratio R of the electrostatic and rest energy densities is
R==rho_E/rho_e = eV/2*me,
where V is the potential difference between the rim
and axis of the disk.
Order of magnitude is determined by the ratio of the energy
gained by the ratio of the potential difference generated
to electron mass. For V about 1 V this gives something like
R=10^(-6) since electron has mass of .5 MeV.
I do not know whether the generated density of electron mass
could be used as an experimental signature of the effect.
Certainly the number density of electrons is very small for typical
values of omega and B: omega= about 10^3/s and B = about Tesla
gives something like 10^10 electrons per cubic meter.
4. Breaking of parity symmetry
The direction of rotation determines whether electrons
or positrons are generated on the spacetime sheet of the
Faraday disk. This might imply observable effects and annihilation
of the positrons producing monochromatic gamma pairs
might serve as signature of effect. The rate of this
process could be however very low if positrons have suffered
topological condensation on non-atomic spacetime sheet, where
the density of electrons is small.
5. N-machine of De Palma
Consider now the possible working principle behind the machine of DePalma.
a) When one extracts electric energy from the
system consisting of a rotating magnet with conductor
disk attached to it, the electric field tends to dissipate. The
possibility to generate new vacuum charge however compensates this
energy and the ratio of output power to input power can quite well be
larger than one.
b) One can indeed play with the idea that DePalma generator or its
generalization could open the road to the stars! One should try
to find the most general mechanisms implying unstability
of system against the generation of spacetime sheets carrying negative
energies. By the way, the generation of matter antimatter
asymmetry might be based on this mechanism, too. Antimatter
would be at spacetime sheets with negative time orientation and
on spacetime sheets of positive time orientation matter and antimatter
[This question is also interesting from the point of view of TGD inspired
theory of consciousness since the pairs of positive-negative energy
fermion pairs (cognitive fermion pairs) provide a representation of
Boolean mind: fermion number=1<-->TRUE, fermion =0<-->FALSE), see
c) If this picture is correct, the basic challenge of the propellantless
propulsion research would be to find systems, which
are unstable against generation of negative energy
spacetime sheets. In case of DePalma generator
stability of condensed matter against Lorentz force,
forces this instability.
d) The model for propulsion depends on what happens to the energy
residing at the negative energy spacetime sheet.
d1) If it is carried by the rocket one must treat the vehicle as a
composite of the both spacetime sheets. In this case the total rest
energy of the vehicle is gradually reduced and the
rate for the transformation of rest energy to power is the
rate at which power is consumed in the rest system of the
Here P is the total power disappering from the vehicle
and contains the power used to accelerate it.
d2) If the energy density associated with the negative
energy spacetime sheet can be forgotten after its creation, one
can assume that the rest mass of the rocket stays constant.
dgamma/dtau = P/M,
One could of course ask what happens to the negative energy spacetime
sheets after their creation. One possibility is that they
live some time and disappear: this would mean that negative energy
goes back to some material system. Thus the mechanism of energy
extraction would be nonlocal and could draw energy from distant
energy sources. Basically the TGD;eish
version of vacuum pair generation which particles replaced
with 3-surfaces is in question. Also macroscopic quantum
effect would be in question.
[TGD] "Topological Geometrodynamics",
[pdTGD] "Topological Geometrodynamics and p-Adic numbers",
[cbook] "TGD inspired theory of consciousness with applications
[cbook] is under heavy updating now. I hope that updated
chapters are available after few weeks.
With Best Regards,
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